But it is only in the past decade that academics have begun to take up the question of how gender identity, particularly for trans and gender-nonconforming people, relates to the prison system.
The book brings together the work of activists, artists, and academics, many of whom are current or former prisoners; it challenges hierarchies of expertise, presenting recollection, poetry, and theory as equally legitimate mediums for political critique. U., Manning told me that the book “had a forceful and immediate impact on my understanding of myself.” She continued, “It walks readers through the reasons why … “And so the more traditional format of a book seemed vital.” Organizations such as Black & Pink do the work of locating L. Critics working within academia have written extensively about the correlation between race, policing, and incarceration.
What is often referred to as the prison industrial complex is one of the fastest growing and most profitable industries of the past half-century.
At this point, it is common knowledge that the Unites States prison system incarcerates more people, and for longer periods of time, than any other prison system in the world.
late 2011, as Chelsea Manning awaited trial at the military corrections complex at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, she received a book from an anonymous sender called “Captive Genders,” an anthology of writings about the impact of the prison system on queer and trans people_.__ _Two years later, on August 22, 2013—the day after she was found guilty of multiple charges related to her leaking of classified government documents, and sentenced to thirty-five years in prison—Manning publicly came out as a trans woman. We don’t fit into—and don’t want to fit into—the gendered stereotypes of modern society.”For prisoners in the United States, many of whom live in solitary confinement or without consistent access to the Internet, hard copies of books, newsletters, and zines are the only reliable way to access contemporary political discourse. prisoners, through surveys and newsletters, but activists and prisoners continually run the risk of having their correspondence confiscated. To shrink, let alone eliminate, the prison system would require a drastic and total restructuring of society.
This past November, a second edition of “Captive Genders” was released, with a new essay by Manning about the ways in which the military and the corrections system police gender expression. It is up to friends, activists, and organizers on the outside to deliver content to those living within prison walls. Stanley and Nat Smith, the activist-academics who edited “Captive Genders”_,__ _maximum accessibility for people on the inside was one of the project’s core goals. According to Stanley, since the collection’s initial publication, in 2011, approximately five hundred copies have reached L. But abolition as a political practice asserts that there _ _an alternative—that punishment, confinement, and captivity are simply conventions with which many have grown complacent.